Fayoum is an oasis in the Western Desert 90 km south west of Cairo. It is a northern governorate of Upper Egypt. Surrounded by sand from 3 sides except from the east where it is connected with the Nile valley and it is 6068 sq.km. Differing from typical oases, whose fertility depends on water obtained from springs, the cultivated land in the Faiyum is formed of Nile mud brought down by the Bahr Yussef, 15 miles (24 km) in length. Between the beginning of Bahr Yussef at El-Lahun to its end at the city of Faiyum , several canals branch off to irrigate the Faiyum Governorate. The drainage water flows into Lake Qarun . Over 400 mile² (1,000 km²) of the Faiyum Oasis is cultivated, the chief crops being cereals and cotton . The completion of the Aswan Low Dam ensured a fuller supply of water, which enabled 20,000 acres (80 km²) of land, previously unirrigated and untaxed, to be brought under cultivation in the three years 1903-1905. Evidence of human occupation has been detected since the earliest times; andIt was named (Mir Ware) which means the great sea when the water was flooding all the depression of Fayoum. Then it was called (Sdt Sdt) which means the Abstract Lake Land; based on land reclamation operations by taking it from the lake. In the Greek Roman era it was under the name (Crocoddilipolis) because of the existence of the crocodile which was worshiped under the name (god Sobek), and was also named (BarSobek): the house of god Sobek. After that the name changed to (Arsenauy) in the honor of the wife's sister of PtolemyII (Philadelphus).The name was mentioned in text Q10 and Q11 which has the Dimutiqy origin P3-ym (Baym) means the lake which mutates to Fayoum. Finally the Egyptian definite article was added to become: (Al- Fayoum).
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